Declaration of Independence - 4TH Of July 1776

The declaration of independence of the Unites States of America was proclaimed from Great Britain in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Continental Congress, July 4th, 1776. The revolution was paved with taxes, as the British parliament kept passing taxes (disliked by the colonies) without the consent of the colonial governments. In 1765, the Parliament passed the Stamp Act, which was a taxation measure to raise revenue for standing British army in America, causing the first major opposition against the British. For months, most colonists boycotted British goods and attacked tax collectors until the Parliament voted to revoke the Stamp Act in March, 1766. 1770, five colonists were killed by the British in the Boston Massacre.


1773, came the Tea Act, a bill to save the East India Company by lowering its tea tax as well as granting a monopoly on the American tea trade. This led to the Boston Tea Party, which led to 18,000 pounds of tea getting dumped into Boston Harbor. As a consequence, the British Parliament passed the Coercive Act, which led to formal British military rule in Massachusetts also making British officials immune to criminal prosecution in America. As tension grew, the colonists called the first Continental Congress to consider a united American resistance against the British. On April 19, 1775, British troops in Concord, Massachusetts ordered by the British governor, Thomas Gage, encountered a group of American protestors at Lexington and the first shots of the American Revolution were fired. The Battle of Bunker Hill cost hundreds of American lives as well as a thousand on the British side. With the growing tension, the Continental Congress began passing measures to put an end to British Authority in the colonies in Philadelphia, 1774. January 1776, "Common Sense", a political pamphlet was published by Thomas Paine that argued for the American independence and sold more than half a million copies in a few months. Eventually a five-man committee was assigned to draft a declaration.


“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” The second part presents a long list of grievances that provided the rationale for rebellion. - a few lines written by Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson presented the initial draft to the Congress on June 28 for debate including a list of unjust act by King George III who had committed many injuries and illegal acts in order to gain control over the States.


The colonists knew that the only way they could win would be to get support from foreign powers such as France, of which they could only get by declaring themselves as a separate nation. In October 1775, King George III had denounced the colonies in the Parliament and began building up his army and navy to defeat the colonies. George Washington and his 20,000 troops faced Britain in the Boston Siege, which led to the British evacuation in March 1776. Then Washington moved his army to New York where he assumed the British invasion would take place. And he was correct.

On July 4th, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by 12 colonies, New York joined on July 19 even as a large British fleet with about 34,000 troops prepared to invade New York. On August 2, the Declaration was formally signed. The Revolutionary War lasted for five more years including the Patriot triumphs at Saratoga, intervention of the French, winter at Valley Forge and the final victory at Yorktown in 1781. Treaty of Paris was signed with Britain in 1783, finally making the United States an independent nation.

Reference

  1. https://www.history.com/topics/holidays/july-4th

  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independence_Day_(United_States)

  3. https://www.military.com/july-4th/history-of-independence-day.html

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