A fallacy is an error in reasoning when someone adopts a position or persuades someone else to
adopt a position on a bad piece of reasoning. You then commit a fallacy. An argument should be a like a two way street it should allow for an open exchange of ideas. A fallacy argument does not give you two ways and open for exchange of ideas.
Pathos, Emotional fallacy:
Sentimental appeal ⇒ use emotions to distract the audience from the facts
Red Herrings ⇒ use of misleading or unrelated evidence to support a conclusion
Scare tactics ⇒ trying to scare the audience into agreeing with you by threatening them or predicting unrealistically dire consequences.
Bandwagon ⇒ encourage an audience to agree with the writer because everyone else is doing so.
Slippery slope ⇒ Arguments suggest that one thing will lead to another oftentimes with disastrous results.
Either or choices ⇒ reduce complicated issue to only two possible courses of action.
False need ⇒ arguments create an unnecessary desire for things.
False authority ⇒ asks audience to agree with the assertion of a writer based simolt on his or her character or the authority of another person or institution who may not be fully qualified to offer that assertion.
Using authority instead of evidence ⇒ occurs whens someone offers personal authority.
Guilty by association ⇒ calls someone character into question by examining the characters of the characters associates
Dogmatism ⇒ shutdown discussion by asserting that the writer's belief are the only acceptable ones
Moral equivalence ⇒ compares minor problems with much more serious crimes
Ad hominem ⇒ arguments attack the person's character rather that person's reasoning
Strawperson ⇒ arguments set up and often dismantle easily refuted arguments in order to misrepresent an opponent's argument in order to defeat him or her
Logos, Logical fallacies:
Hasty generalization ⇒ draws conclusions from scanty evidence
Post hoc ⇒ argument confuse chronology with causation one event can occur after another without being caused it.
Non sequitur ⇒ A statement that does not logically relate to what comes before it an important logical statement may be missing in such a claim.
Equivocation ⇒ a half truth or a statement that is partially correct but that purposefully obscures the entire truth.
Begging the question ⇒ occurs when a writer simply restates the claim in a different way such an argument is circular
Faulty analogy ⇒ an inaccurate inappropriate or misleading comparison between two things
Stacked evidence ⇒ represents only one side of the issue thus dotoring the issue