Rhetorical fallacies


Rhetorical fallacies:

  • A fallacy is an error in reasoning when someone adopts a position or persuades someone else to

adopt a position on a bad piece of reasoning. You then commit a fallacy. An argument should be a like a two way street it should allow for an open exchange of ideas. A fallacy argument does not give you two ways and open for exchange of ideas.

Pathos, Emotional fallacy:

  • Sentimental appeal ⇒ use emotions to distract the audience from the facts

  • Red Herrings ⇒ use of misleading or unrelated evidence to support a conclusion

  • Scare tactics ⇒ trying to scare the audience into agreeing with you by threatening them or predicting unrealistically dire consequences.

  • Bandwagon ⇒ encourage an audience to agree with the writer because everyone else is doing so.

  • Slippery slope ⇒ Arguments suggest that one thing will lead to another oftentimes with disastrous results.

  • Either or choices ⇒ reduce complicated issue to only two possible courses of action.

  • False need ⇒ arguments create an unnecessary desire for things.

Ethical fallacies:

  • False authority ⇒ asks audience to agree with the assertion of a writer based simolt on his or her character or the authority of another person or institution who may not be fully qualified to offer that assertion.

  • Using authority instead of evidence ⇒ occurs whens someone offers personal authority.

  • Guilty by association ⇒ calls someone character into question by examining the characters of the characters associates

  • Dogmatism ⇒ shutdown discussion by asserting that the writer's belief are the only acceptable ones

  • Moral equivalence ⇒ compares minor problems with much more serious crimes

  • Ad hominem ⇒ arguments attack the person's character rather that person's reasoning

  • Strawperson ⇒ arguments set up and often dismantle easily refuted arguments in order to misrepresent an opponent's argument in order to defeat him or her

Logos, Logical fallacies:

  • Hasty generalization ⇒ draws conclusions from scanty evidence

  • Post hoc ⇒ argument confuse chronology with causation one event can occur after another without being caused it.

  • Non sequitur ⇒ A statement that does not logically relate to what comes before it an important logical statement may be missing in such a claim.

  • Equivocation ⇒ a half truth or a statement that is partially correct but that purposefully obscures the entire truth.

  • Begging the question ⇒ occurs when a writer simply restates the claim in a different way such an argument is circular

  • Faulty analogy ⇒ an inaccurate inappropriate or misleading comparison between two things

  • Stacked evidence ⇒ represents only one side of the issue thus dotoring the issue

#YasAsghari #Yas #Rhetoricalfallacies

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