Welcome to the biology section where "Our thoughts, visions, and fantasies have a physical reality. A thought is made of hundreds of electrochemical impulses" - Carl Sagan


September 20, 2019

What does a pathogen cause?

It causes a disease by invading the body.

How is a bacterial infection treated?

A bacterial infection can be treated with antibiotics, considering it is a natural substance,  which slows down the growth of the bacteria.  

What is the first line of defence, the second and the third?

The first line of defence :

The first line of defence skin, that is a thick barrier protecting the environme...

September 3, 2019


I chose to study the correlation of Tuberculosis with the HDI of six different countries, because I find the countries HDI interesting to study as well as something important for everyone to know and help to improve. Many believe that particular countries that are highly infected because of a disease is because the disease originates from there, whilst in reality most of the times it all goes down to hygiene and r...

August 5, 2019


Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are enzymes involved in the bacterial growth and biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall. PBP2 and PBP2sal are two of many enzymes included in the elongasome protein complex that synthesizes the peptidoglycan found in S. Typhimurium. The aim of this investigation is to potentially discover particular conditions in which PBP2 switches with PBP2sal. Additionally, if a switch would o...

December 2, 2018

Evolution has arguably been one of the most controversial and misunderstood topic of

discussion and research within both the societal and scientific community during the past

decennium since the release of: “On the Origin of Species” by none other than the father of the

theory of evolution, Charles Darwin himself.

As we should all keep in mind when studying scientific claims, a theory is not the same as a not

necessarily proven hyp...

October 15, 2018

Under the leaves of most plants, stomata are found which are left open in order to exchange gases taking up carbon dioxide as well as getting rid of oxygen. However, once the stomata is left open, water vapour is lost from the leaves. This process is called Transpiration and it activated the following process called Transpirational pull. When water vapour is lost at the tip of the Xylem, a negative pressure is induced in that...

May 30, 2018

Multi-resistant bacteria refers to bacterias who are resistant to antibiotics. A broader term is

antimicrobial resistance which refer to the ability for a microbe to resist a treatment that was

used to be effective. Perhaps you have heard and read that multi-resistant bacteria is causing

huge problems. In this post I will explain why they cause huge problems. Let’s get started!

Why does multi-resistant bacteria exist? A bacterium...

Feeling a bit nationalist today hehe. About 10 kilometres from the city of Manaus in northern Brazil, ‘the

Meeting of the Waters’ is the point where two of Amazon River’s largest tributaries, Rio Negro and Rio Solimões, converge but don’t mix. 

The Solimões River forms the lighter half, brown-ish colouring owed to the rich sediment that runs down from the Andes Mountains, including sand, mud and silt. Known as a ‘white water r...

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